Oil and Gas industry is the major industry in the market as the world’s primary fuel source. Oil and gas are generated from a source rock, organic matter buried in the depths of the earth. Once formed, they climb back towards the surface. On their way, cap rocks can impede their progress and they accumulate in reservoir rocks. Here they constitute hydrocarbon fields, which can be identified by interpreting a seismic data.
Crude oil, once extracted, is distilled in a refinery to separate the hydrocarbon as needed. The lighter molecules evaporate to the top of distillation column where the temperature is around 20 degree Celsius. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are harvested and used among other things such as, in lighters and kitchens. Between 30 degree and 105 degree Celsius, gasoline for cars is produced. Between 105 degree and 160 degree Celsius, naphtha is created, used in petrochemicals in order to create plastics, synthetic textiles, drugs and cosmetics. Between 160 degree and 230 degree Celsius, kerosene is obtained for aviation. Between 230 degree and 425 degree Celsius, diesel is created for cars and heating oil for domestic purposes. Eventually, the thick, high-sulfur residue is heated to above 450 degree Celsius to form heavy fuel oil used by ships, and to obtain bitumen used for road construction and roofing.
There have been significant discoveries that are dignified to transform Africa into a major hydrocarbon herb. Trillions of cubic feet of natural gas have been discovered between East Africa the Mediterranean gas fields offshore, North Africa and the recent hydrocarbon boom in Southern Africa the continent is quickly overtaking the rest of the world as the leader in oil and gas exploration as the leader in oil and gas exploration representing the final frontier for oil and gas exploration.
Petroleum or crude oil is a fossil fuel. It is the result of organic matter transforming into hydrocarbon over millions of years. Generally buried in the form of a deposit, crude oil sometimes appears on the surface of the earth. Historically, stating, oil was used around the world, as a sealing material in construction and for medical purposes. But in the middle of 19th century the consumption explode. In the present time, the oil and gas industry is undergoing major transformation thanks to adoption of digital technologies. Oil and gas industry has made significant advancements in developing new technologies and doing things in better and more environmentally friendly way.